Grindon et al. Altern Lab Anim. 2006 Dec;34(6):651-64.
Categorization of the assay/approach:
Status of the assay:
Categorization according to "exposure duration/effect":
Categorization according to combination of type of effect, endpoint measured and/or method used:
Categorization according to what "R" from the "3R" concept is this assay an alternative:
Prospects for using alternative methods (both in vitro and in silico) for environmental (aquatic) toxicity testing. The manuscript reviews tests based on fish cells and cell lines, fish embryos, lower organisms, and the many expert systems and QSARs for aquatic toxicity testing.